Dr.Kumar Pati,uSA


Creatine is a non-protein amino acid found in animals and, in much lesser amounts, plants.  Creatine is synthesized in the kidney, liver, and pancreas from the amino acids l-arginine, glycine and i-methionine.  Following its biosynthesis, creatine is transported to skeletal muscle, the heart, brain and other tissues.  Most of the creatine is metabolized in these tissues to produce phosphocreatine, which is a major energy storage form in the body.


Creatine supplements are often used by athletes, bodybuilders, wrestlers and others who wish to gain muscle mass.  Typical consumption of supplement form will provide 2 to 3 times the amount of creatine that can be obtained from a very-high protein diet.  The Mao Clinic states that creatine has been associated with asthmatic symptoms and warns against consumption by persons with known allergies.  While there was once some concern that creatine supplementation could affect hydration status and heat tolerance, thus leading to muscle cramping and diarrhea, recent studies have shown these concens to be inconclusive.


There are reports of kidney damage with creatine use, such as interstitial nephritis;  patients with kidney disease should avoid use of this supplement.  In similar manner, liver function may be altered, and caution is advised in those with underlying liver disease although studies have shown little or no adverse impact on kidney or liver function from oral creatine supplementation.


Creatine is not recommended for use during pregnancy or mother’s breastfeeding due to a lack of scientific information.   Pasteurized cow’s milk contains higher levels of creatine than human milk.


Few studies have been conducted to determine the interaction between creatine and other nutritional supplements, herbs, and drugs.  However, caffeine appears to interfere with any beneficial effects gained from creatine supplementation.


There are currently no studies indicating the consumption of creatine monohydrate causes any serious adverse side effects.  However, some people may experience slight stomach and digestive discomfort like gas, bloating, or possibly diarrhea for a few weeks when initiating the use of creatine supplements.  These digestive symptoms and stomach problems may be eradicated by lowering the amount of intake of creatine monohydrate.  Since creatine supplementation causes the muscles to retain water, some people may experience slight weight gain of as many as five pounds in the first few weeks.  Signs of dehydration are also common when creatine supplements are added to one’s diet.


The typical form of creatine available is creatine monohydrate powder.  The common dosage for those using  creatine to see immediate performance enhancements during high-intensity activities will seek a loading dose, which is20 gramsor0.3 gramsper kilogram of weight in divided doses four times a day for two to five days.  A maintenance dose, of no more than2 gramsdaily or0.03 gramsper kilogram of weight, is used to follow after the loading dose.   Those who use creatine supplements should  take them with adequate amounts of water, six to eight glasses per day is suggested.


Cyanobacteria SPIRULINA POWDER Dr. Kumar Pati, USA



Dr. Kumar Pati, USA


Spirulina is a genus of the phylum Cyanobacteria, recognized as a type of blue-green algae that is rich in protein, vitamins, minerals, and carotenoids (a type of antioxidant that can help protect cells from damage).  It is a popular food supplement introduced inJapanand is currently marketed in theUnited Statesas a nutritional supplement.   It contains nutrients, including B complex vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin E, manganese, zinc, copper, iron, selenium, and gamma linoleric acid (an essential fatty acid).  Spirulina, like any blue-green algae, can be contaminated with toxic substances called microcystins, and can also absorb heavy metals when present in the water it inhabits.  For these reasons, it is important to buy Spirulina from a trusted brand.

Test tube and animal studies suggest Spirulina may boost the immune system, help protect against allergic reactions, and have antiviral and anticancer properties.  However, there is no proof that Spirulina has these, or any, benefits in humans.  More research is needed to fully understand how or whether Spirulina benefits people.  Other beneficial claims for Spirulina include putative antiviral, hypocholelesteroleminc, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic and immune-modulatory activities.  The pharmacokinetics of Spirulina in humans has not been studied.  However, the proteins, lipids and carbohydrates provided by Spirulina undergo normal physiological processes in accordance to digestion, absorption, and metabolism.


Spirulina has shown some indication of having antiviral effects in animal studies as well as in preliminary in vitro studies.  It has shown some promise of in habiting some allergic reactions in recent experimental trials.  And, hypocholesterolemic effects have been reported in some animal studies.

Due to the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.  However, Spirulina appears safe, even in high doses.  Unfortunately, it can be contaminated with other substances that can become toxic.  It is important to buy a reputable brand of Spirulina.  If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, talk to your physician before taking Spirulina.  Individuals with the metabolic condition phenylketonuria (PKU)

should avoid taking Spirulina.  This rare condition enables the body to metabolize phenylalanine, which is one of the many amino acids Spirulina is rich in.  Persons with autoimmune diseases, wuch as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus, should also avoid Spriulina because it could stimulate the immune system, thus worsening the body’s condition.

There are various forms of Spirulina supplements, including capsules, tablets, flakes and powders.  Spirulina is also found in some functions foods and in combination with “green food” products alongside barley grass, chlorella and wheat grass.  Doses range from 250 mg to5 gramsdaily.  Although Spirulina has been used in children, the safe and effective dose for those less that 18 years of age has not yet been established.  Children should consult medical professionals before taking Spirulina.  Consult a health care provider to determine the right dosage for you.  A standard dose consists of 4-5 tablets (500 mg each) per day.

L-HISTIDINE, A Synthesized Protein Dr. Kumar Pati, USA

L-HISTIDINE, A Synthesized Protein





L-Histidine is an amino acid found in the proteins of all life forms.  Although most L-Histidine is found in proteins, a small amount of free L-Histidine does exist in plants and fermented foods.  The naturally occurring dipeptides found in muscle, carnosine and anserine, are both comprised of L-Histidine and beta-alanine.  L-Histidine is essential, playing a significant role in the growth and repair of tissues.  It is involved in the maintenance of myelin sheath, the surrounding layer of nerve cells which serves as protection.  It is required for the production of red and white blood cells, while balancing blood pressure levels in the body.  In addition, L-Histidine protects the body against radiation damage, along with aiding in the removal of harmful heavy metals.  Histamines are important chemicals used to maintain a healthy immune system.  They too are derived from L-Histidine.


L-Histidine is one of 10 essential amino acids required by infants.  However, the requirements for adults has not yet been confirmed to be essential.  At the very least, it is a conditional essential amino acid for adults.  That is, even though L-Histidine is synthesized in adult human tissues, sufficient quantities may not be made to meet the physiological requirements imposed by certain stress or disease situations.  L-Histidine may be indicated for use by patients with rheumatoid arthritis.


L-Histidine is absorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism requiring the presence of sodium.  From the small intestine, L-Histidine is transported to the liver by means of the portal circulation, where some is metabolized and form whence some enters the systemic circulation to be distributed to various tissues in the body.


L-Histidine can be obtained in a variety of foods, including beans, brewer’s yeast, brown rice bran, caseinate, dairy products, eggs, fish, lactalbumin, legumes, meat, nuts, seafood, seeds, soy, whey, whole grains.  Dairy, meat and poultry, and fish are all good sources of Histidine.


The supplemental effects from L-Histidine are not entirely clear, there may be some immunomodulatory symptoms as well as antioxidant activity that result from taking L-Histidine supplements.  There are no known signs of toxicity from L-Histidine.  Lare doses of L-Histidine can cause premature ejaculation, reduces levels of zinc and possibly trigger an allergic or asthmatic reaction (due to increases in histamine).  Long-term supplementation with L-Histidine may give rise to a copper deficiency and raise blood cholesterol levels.  L-Histidine is generally well-tolerated.  Children, Pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid L-Histidine supplements.  Use of L-Histidine supplements must be done under medical supervision.


Tablets and capsules are typically available in 500 milligram to 100 milligram dosages.  Dosages have ranged from 500 milligrams to4.5 gramsdaily.  However, most people do not need to supplement L-Histidine.  Most studies of L-Histidine have used between 1 and8 gramsper day.


Methylcobalamin is a form of vitamin B12 Dr. Kumar Pati, USA

Methylcobalamin is a form of vitamin B12

Dr. Kumar Pati, USA


that can also be found written as MeCB1 or MeB12.   It is one of four cobalamin compounds that the human body is able to metabolize.  A cobalamin compound contains a central cobalt ion, with one of four particular groups attached to its upper ligand.  These ligands can either be a cyanide, a hydroxide, an adenosine, or a methyl group.


Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin necessary for energy production.  It is an important component involved in the production of myelin, the fatty substance that forms a protective sheath around nerves, to conduct proper nervous system functions.  Methylcobalamin vital for the maintenance of optimal cognitive abilities;  it is responsible for the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that helps with memory and learning.  Other functions offered by this vitamin include the synthesis of red blood cells, and the production of genetic material such as DNA and RNA.  It can assist in relieving depression by enhancing the body’s energy levels.


Vitamin B12 is essentially obtained from a source of bacteria.  This can be obtained directly from the dut of animals as the bacteria are often found inhabiting a section of the gut posterior of where B12 is absorbed.  Indirect sources include fish, shellfish, eggs, milk products, and meats, especially liver.  Vegans are required to obtain sources of vitamin B12 through B12-fortified foods, or dietary supplements..


In a recent study, subjects taking methylcobalamin experienced improvement in sleep quality and increased daytime alertness and concentration.   In some cases they also reported improved mood.  Much of the benefit appears to be a result of methylcobalamin’s influence on melatonin secretion and resetting the biological clock.  Specifically, methylcobalamin causes a significant decrease in daytime melatonin levels while increasing nighttime levels.


Methylcobalamin makes adrenaline from norepinephrine, and melatonin from serotonin.   It is crucial for the transcription of DNA and other entities.  The methyl group from this B12 form is required from the conversion of harmful homocysteine into beneficial methionine which acts as an antioxidant.  The cardiac system is protected as a result of this reaction.  The use of methylcobalamin or other forms of vitamin B12 to treat B12 deficiencies or other medical conditions requires medical supervision.  It should not be used in those with leber’s opticatrophy.


The general daily dosage of vitamin B12 falls between 3 to 30 micrograms.  Although higher doses have been consumed, the Food and Nutrition Board advises that individuals older than 50 years of age to consume foods fortified with B12 in order to meet the RDA (2.4 micrograms daily).  A typical dose of vitamin B12 as a nutritional supplement used by pregnant women and nursing mothers is 12 micrograms daily.   Administration of doses of vitamin B12 greater than 10 micrograms daily may produce a hematological response in those with anemia secondary to folate deficiency.

Co-Enzyme, CoQ10 Dr..Kumar Pati

Co-Enzyme, CoQ10

Dr. Kumar Pati, USA

In 1957, Andrew L. Crane along with his team of scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Mandison Enzyme Institute discovered an oil-soluble vitamin known as CoQ 10.   CoQ 10 is the abbreviation of Conenzyme 10, also know as ubiquinone and ubidecarenone.   The chemical name of CoQ 10 is 1,4-benzoquinone.  Q refers to the quinine and 10 represents the number of isopenyl repeats present in the chemical structure.  The main function of CoQ 10 can be found in the mitochondria, the energy-producing organelle, in almost all euakaryotic cells.  CoQ 10 is also abundant in the inner membranes or many organelles including endoplastic reticulum, peroxisomes lysosomes, and vesicles.  Because ATP provides more than 95% of the energy required by the human body, organs such as the liver and heart requiring a high supply of energy demand high CoQ 10 concentrations.

The ability of CoQ 10 to transfer electrons makes it an antioxidant.   Currently, CoQ 10 is mainly used as a dietary supplement and it has yet to be approved for many clinical purposes.  Physicians would only prescribe CoQ 10 as a treatment for very serious mitochondrial or metabolic disorders where the patient is unable to produce enough CoQ 10.   There are some evidence that suggest CoQ 10 could be effective in treating patients with congestive heart failure and Parkinsons disease, but more research needs to be conducted.  In recent years, a big market has established of incorporating CoQ 10 into many anti-aging cosmetic products  especially inAsia.  It has also been added to products associated with body building and weight loss.

Absorption of CoQ 10 crystalline powder by the human body is not very efficient due to its high molecular weight, low polarity and water-insolubility.  In addition, its solubility in lipids is low which makes it difficult to be adsorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract.   The absorption process in the GI tract can be facilitated by bile and the mechanism appears to be similar to that of Vitamin E.  Steps have been taken to improve the bioavailability of CoQ 10 such as reducing particle sizes and increasing solubility in water.




Dr. Kumar Pati, USA


First isolated in 1904 from fibrin, isoleucine was discovered to be a sydrophobic a-amino acid that is essential to humans.  Mammalian bodies cannot manufacturer this chemical biologically, thus ingestion from other dietary means is required.  There are 3 sets of nucleotide codons that are responsible for identifiying isoleucine for further protein synthesis.  Plants and microorganisms have the ability to synthesize this amino acid through a pathway that involves pyruvic acid, alpha ketoglutarate, and a number of enzymes.


Animals store a large quantity of isoleucine internally.  Foods that supply an abundant source include eggs, soy protein, legumes, poultry, lamb, fish, and cheese.  It is identified as one of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which also include leucine and valine.  They make up nearly 70% of the amino acids in the body.  BCAA’s are involved in promoting muscle recovery.  Isoleucine’s common role as a dietary supplement is to increase endurance, while supporting blood clotting to injured muscle sites that need repair.  Muscle tissues obtain energy through the breakdown of isoleucine.  It specializes in the formation of hemoglobin to regulate the blood sugar levels that correlate in maintaining a balanced supply of energy.  Athletes turn to nutritional supplements containing isoleucine for accelerated recovery after physical exercise.


Those who lack an adequate supply will experience symptoms similar to hypoglycemia such as headaches, fatigue, depression, and irritability.  Studies have indicated that supplementation with isoleucine will reduce twitching and tremors in animals.


When supplementing with isoleucine, the recommended daily dose ranges from 650 – 700 mg per day.  On average a person should ingest 10-12 mg per kilogram of body weight per day.  Serious side effects or toxicity does not result from ingesting higher does of isoleucine.  However, those with liver or kidney disorders should consult a health care professional prior to use.  For optimal benefits, it is suggested that isoleucine should be taken in conjunction with its other BCAA’s in a 2:1:1 ration of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, respectively.


BLACK COHOSH, An American Herb Dr. Kumar Pati, USA

BLACK COHOSH, An American Herb




Black Cohosh is a herb native to the central and eastern regions ofNorth America.  It is found is woodland habitats and the uses and nutrients come from its roots and rhizomes, which are underground stems.   On the market, extracts come in the form of tablets and solution.   The main active ingredient is known as triterpene saponins, which plays important roles in many of the functions of black cohosh discussed later.


The Native Americans have long been using black cohosh medicinally because it is thought to have analgestic, sedative, and anti-inflammatory properties.   Historical evidence shows it has been used to treat gynecological disorders, sore throats, kidney problems and depression.   Black cohosh continues to find its place in modern medicine, with doctors recommending it primarily to treat menopause.   It has also been heavily marketed as a dietary supplement to women to treat gynecological and premenstrual symptoms.   Women hitting menopause usually have a lower level of the female hormone, estrogen.   Studies have suggested that black cohosh exhibits estrogenic activity but the results are contradictory.


Recerntly, research has shown another potential property that black cohosh as to prevent ostereoporosis.  Its extracts contain a high concentration of complex biological molecules such as triterpene glycosides, which can reduce cytokine-induced bone loss by blocking osteroclasts from disrupting mineralized matrix in our bones in experiments done in vitro and viro.


In theUS, black cohosh is considered to be a dietary supplement which belongs to the food group, not drugs.  Hence, companies providing the supplements are not required to provide concrete evidence to Food and Drug Administration of its claimed effectiveness and its safety is not rigorously regulated.  Millions of people have taken this substance without showing adverse side effects.  However, a few people have experienced liver damage, abdominal pain, dark urine and jaundice.  Individuals with breast cancer, liver disorders or during pregnancy should avoid taking black cohosh.