Dr. Kumar Pati, USA


Xylitol is a sugar alcohol sweetener used as a naturally occurring sugar substitute to help prevent cavities.  It is found in the fibers of many fruits and vegetables, including various berries, corn husks, oats, and muschrooms,  It can be extracted from corn fiber, birch, raspberries, plums, and corn.  Xylitol is roughly as sweet as sucrose with only two-thirds the food energy.   It is equal in sweetness and volume to sugar.  Its granular form can be used in many ways similar to sugar, such as an ingredient in beverages and baking.


Xylitol is currently approved for use in foods, pharmaceuticals and oral health products in more than 35 countries, including theUnited Statesas a direct food additive in foods for special dietary uses.   Xylitol is used in foods such as chewing gum, gum drops and hard candy, and in pharmaceuticals and oral health products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, children’s chewable multivitamins, toothpastes and mouthwashes.


Possessing approximately 40% less food energy, xylitol is low-calorie alternative to table sugar.  Absorbed more slowly than sugar, it does not contribute to high blood sugar levels or the resulting hyperglycemia caused by insufficient insulin response.   Xylitol also has potential as a treatment for osteoporosis.   A group of Finnish researchers has found that dietary xylitol prevents weakening of bones in laboratory rats, and actually improves bone density.


Studies have shown that xylitol chewing gum can help prevent ear infections (acute otitis media);  the act of chewing and swallowing assists with the disposal of earwax and clearing the middle ear, whilst the presence of xylitol prevents the growth of bacteria in the Eustachian tubes (auditory tubes or pharyngotympanic tubes) which connect the nose and ear.   A recent report suggest that consumption of xylitol may help control oral infections of Candida Yeast;  in contrast, galactic, glucose, and sucrose may increase proliferation.


Xylitol is not only safe for pregnant and nursing women, but studies show that regular use significantly reduces the probability of transmitting Streptococcus mutans bacteria, which is responsible for tooth decay, from mother to child during the first two years of life by as much as 80%.  Generally, for the amount to xylitol to be at decay-preventing levels, it must be listed as the first ingredient.  Health food stores can be a good resource

for xylitol containing products.  Additionally, several companies provide xylitol products for distribution over the internet.


Xylitol gum or mints used 3-5 times daily, for a total intake of5 grams, is considered optimal.  Because frequency and duration of exposure is important, gum should be chewed for approximately 5 minutes and mints should be allowed to dissolve.  As xylitol is digested slowly in the large intestine, it acts much like fiber and large amounts can lead to soft stools or have a laxative effect.


Xylitol has no know toxicity in humans.  In one study, the participants consumed a diet containing a monthly average of1.5 kgof xylitol with a maximum daily intake of430 gwith no apparent ill effects.  Like most sugar alcohols, it has a laxative effect because sugar alcohols are not fully broken down during digestion; albeit one-tenth the strength of sorbitol.








L-Methionine is a protein amino acid.  It is classified as an essential amino acid for humans and therefore is a requirement in our everyday diet.  L-Methionine is also known to be glycogenic amino acid and is involved in the formation of d-glucose and glycogen.  It is an important sulfur-containing amino acids with a molecular structure that is insoluble in water.


According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) the recommended intake for L-Methionine is 13 mg daily for every kilogram of weight, which equivalents to about one gram daily in adults.  However, the actual daily intake is higher due to its rich source is foods.  L-Methionine is principally derived from dietary proteins which include cheeses, eggs, fish, meat and poultry.   It can also be found in fruits and vegetables, though these sources are less abundant in this amino.


L-Methionine is contraindicated in those with the genetic disorder homocystinuria, as well as those who show hypersensitivity to any component of methionine-containing products.  Endometriosis, a condition in which patches of endometrial tissue from the uterine lining grow outside the uterus, has a proposed treatment when L-Methionine is paired with lipotropic compounds.  In addition, L-Methionine is an especially important nutrient beneficial for those suffering from estrogen dominance, where the amount of estrogen in the body is excessively high in comparison to its opposing hormone called progesterone.  The nutrient is believed to help expedite the removal of excess estrogen from the liver.


L-Methionine is both an antioxidant and lipotrope, meaning it helps to remove fat from the liver.  Methionine contributes to the hydrophobicity of a protein.   Methionine controls the level of beneficial sulfur-containing compounds in the body.  These sulfur containing compounds are in turn vital for defending against toxic compounds like heavy metals in the liver.  Methionine helps reduce histamine levels, which are amino acids that control dilation of blood vessels and influence brain function.


A clinical trial conducting research on healthy individuals supplementing with various doses of L-Methionine found results as follows:  Healthy adults taking8 gramsof L-Methionine daily for days weekly were found to have reduced serum folate levels and leucocytosis.  Healthy adults taking13.9 gramsof L-Methionine daily for five days a week were found to have changes in serum pH and potassium and increased urinary calcium excretion.


Dietrary supplementation with L-Methionine was found to decrease glycine levels when given to healthy women ona low-protein diet.  High L-Methionine intake in a diet high in salt and nitrites/nitrates may increase the rish of stomach cancer.  L-Methionine supplements should be avoided by pregnant women and nursing mothers unless they are prescribed by a physician.  It should also be avoided by those with neoplastic disease.  Individuals with elevated homocysteine levels, and taken with caution for those with coronary heart disease.  Doses of 250 mg L-methionine daily are generally well tolerated.  Higher doses may cause nausea, vomiting and headaches.





Dr. Kumar Pati, USA


Arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) is a salt composed of the amino acid Arginine and Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid.  It has been marketed as a body building supplement as an advanced form of Arginine.  Arginine is a popular supplement used widely by bodybuilders and athletes to accelerate muscle growth, increase strength and endurance.  This amino acid is also involved in protein synthesis, by acting as an active substance.  Alpha-ketoglutarate is also an important biological compound.   It helps the body to create usable energy from carbohydrates, fats and protein.


In addition to the benefits provided by Arginine, together with Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid, AAKG adds to the effect of quick recovery after physical exercise as well as improves sexual performance.  Alpha-Ketoglutarate helps to improve the delivery of Arginine throughout the body.  It is widely used as one of the most important nitrogen (NO) transporters that positively affect metabolic pathways.  In short, the coupling of Arginine to Alpha-Ketoglutarate helps control hormones, builds muscles and is a part of the amino acid group.

L-Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate is commonly used by bodybuilders, athletes and regular gym users who want to gain muscle mass and increase strength, as well as sexual vigor.  L-Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate acts as a stimulant to nitric oxide production in the body.  Nitric oxide is an important element used in directing and ordering a complex array of activities, which include but are not limited to blood flow regulation, muscle contraction, and muscle growth.  Unfortunately, nitric oxide is not readily available and cannot simply be bought at drug stores.   Therefore, people use L-Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate, a natural, non-medicated method for building nitric oxide in the human body.


L-Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate is a dietary supplement sold in a number of forms:  tablets, pills, or powder.   The suggested dosage is 2 or 3 tablets once or twice a day on an empty stomach, preferably int eh morning and at least 30 minutes before workouts.  When using AAKG powder, the recommended dose will range anywhere from 1500 and 3500 mg of powder supplement.  It is also recommended to use AAKG powder with a combination of creatine and other amino acids.  You can also increase the AAKG dosage to 1500 mg 3 times a day and use creatine-based products.  This will more effectively assist in muscle growth.  To avoid possible side effects, this substance is not recommended for continuous, high-level use for more than 60 days and you should not consume powdered NO drinks, which will contain many of these ingredients.

Depending on your body’s needs, AAKG dosage may vary from 2 to15 gramsper day.  Bodybuilders and athletes usually take ½ a tablespoon AAKG powder, which equivalents to approximately4 grams, 3 times a day, thus the total recommended dosage can be as high as12 gramsof powder.  When taking AAKG for general and cardiovascular health, consider taking 1 teaspoon (approximately1.33 grams) 2 to 3 times a day with the total amount ranging between 2 and4 gramsa day.

u�l mn@�@i� necessary for some patients, appropriate dosage should be determined with the consultation of a qualified physician.  Alanine is generally considered to be safe for most people.  However, people with kidney or liver disease should not consume high intakes of amino acids without consulting a healthcare professional.  Isolated alanine supplements are not recommended.






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Dr. Kumar Pati, USA


L-Glutamine is an amino acid found in proteins of all life forms.  It is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid.  Recently, L-Glutamine has come to be regarded as one of the most important amino acids when the body is subject to metabolic stresses including situations such as trauma, cancer, sepsis and burns.


L-Glutamine is predominately synthesized and stored in skeletal muscle.  The amino acid L-Glutamate is metabolized to L-Glutamine in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme glutamine synthase.  Several types of immune cells rely on glutamine for energy.  Our immune system would be impaired in the absence of this amino acid.  It plays a major role in protein synthesis thus important for muscle development and repair.  Additionally, glutamine is involved in the removal of ammonia and aids in digestion.  Lastly, it has been used as an alternative source of energy to the brain, particularly in cognitively stressful times.


Some workout training methods involve shocking our metabolic system to lose weight and build muscle.  This type of training will deplete the body’s glutamine levels.  It is especially true with bodybuilders and marathon runners who push to the extremes.  In these situations, it is important to supplement with glutamine to maintain proper immune functions and allow our muscles to heal and grow.


It is interesting to note that glutamine has been found to help with the healing of stomach ulcers and prevent inflammation of the stomach for those extensively using non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen.  Research has found that supplementation with glutamine suppresses the appetite in animals.  Large scale studies are currently being conducted on humans to determine the effects of glutamine against treating obesity.


The typical dietary intake of L-glutamine is 5 to10 gramsdaily.  It can be found in animal and plant proteins, while small amounts of free L-glutamine exist in vegetable juices and fermented foods, such as miso and yogurt.  The highest sources of L-glutamine include beef, fish, chicken, eggs, milk, dairy products and beans.  L-glutamine is available as capsules, tablets and powder form.  It is also available in medical foods for oral and enteral nutrition, and also available in a dipeptide form for parenteral nutrition use.  Typical doses for patients diagnosed with cancer and AIDS,, suffering trauma, burns, infections and other stress-related conditions ranges from 4 to21 gramsper day.  Administration of L-glutamine under those conditions should be supervised under medical care.


Generally 500 to 1500 mg is considered very safe and insignificant side effects will be exhibited.  However, the most common being upset stomach which as been experienced by some.  Higher doses are not recommended.  Consultation with a physician must be considered when supplementing L-glutamine concurrent with medication.





Dr. Kumar Pati, USA



Alanine is nonessential amino acid first isolated in 1879.  It is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids.  As a nonessential amino acid, it can be manufactured by the human body and synthesize from other cellular metabolites.  It does not need to be obtained directly through the diet.   Alanine is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver.  Its side chain is a non-polar, hydrophobic methyl group that is the second-smallest of the 20 after glycine.  The low reactivity of the amino acid permits silk, a protein which contains some 30% alanine, to have a simple, elongated structure with few cross-links.  Alanine is one of the simplest of the amino acids and is involved in the energy-producing breakdown of glucose.  L-alanine is created in muscle cells from glutamate in a process called transamination.   Alanine comes from the breakdown of DNA or the dipeptides, anserine and carnosine, and the conversion of pyruvate – a compound in carbohydrate metabolism, in the liver, alanine is transformed into pyruvate.


L-Alanine is found in a wide variety of foods, but is particularly concentrated in meats.  Good sources of L-Alanine include animal sources such as meat, seafood, caselnate, dairy products, eggs, fish, gelatin, lactalbumin.  Vegetarian sources include beans, nets, seeds, soy, whey, brewer’s yeast, brown rice, bran, corn, legumes, whole grains.


Alanine is used by the body to build proteins, thus being abundant in human muscle tissues.  It participates in the the biosynthesis of protein, contributing to the desirable features of fiber-strength, resistance to stretching, and flexibility.    Alanine is necessary for the promotion of proper blood glucose levels from dietary protein.  It is readily converted to glucose when blood sugar levels fall and amino acids are liberated from muscle tissue to provide energy.  During exercise the muscles release alanine into the bloodstream in direct proportion to the intensity of the exertion.  The alanine is then converted into glucose and released into the blood plasma.  Alanine is believed to help maintain blood sugar levels stable during exercise.  Glucose is a product released from alanine in the liver and muscles when energy is needed, and thus aiding to balance blood sugar levels.


Low levels of blood sugar have been linked with fatigue during exertion;  some experts believe alanine supplements enable athletes to exercise for longer periods of time at  competitive intensities.  Alanine stimulates lymphocyte production and may help people experiencing immune suppression.  Alanine also strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies.


The amino acid is known to be involved in the metabolism of the vitamin pyridoxine, and also typtophan.  Alanine is present in prostate fluid, and plays a role in supporting prostate health.


Most people do not need to supplement with alanine.  In case alanine supplementation is necessary for some patients, appropriate dosage should be determined with the consultation of a qualified physician.  Alanine is generally considered to be safe for most people.  However, people with kidney or liver disease should not consume high intakes of amino acids without consulting a healthcare professional.  Isolated alanine supplements are not recommended.





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VITAMIN B 12 CYANOCOBALAMIN (Vitamin B12) Dr. Kumar Pati,USA



Dr. Kumar Pati, USA



Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin.  After the body uses these vitamins, leftover amounts leave the body through the urine, thus unable to be stored in the body.  However, vitamin B12 is special in that the body can store it for years, in the liver.


Vitamin B12 has the largest and most complex chemical structure of all the vitamins.  It is unique among vitamins in that it contains a metal ion, cobalt. For this reason cobalamin is the term used to refer to compounds having vitamin B12 activity.  Methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl cobalamin are the forms of vitamin B12 used in the human body.  The form of cobalamin used in most supplements, cyanocobalamin, is readily converted to 5 deoxyadenosyl and methylcobalamin in the body.  In mammals, cobalamin is a cofactor for only two enzymes, methione synthase and L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase.    Ultimately, animals must obtain vitamin B12 directly or indirectly from bacteria, and these bacteria may inhabit a section fo the gut which is posterior to the section where B12 is absorbed.  Thus, herbivorous animals must either obtain B12 from bacteria in their rumens, or by re-ingestion of cecotrope feces.


Vitamin B12 is found in foods that come from animals, including fish and shellfish, meat (especially liver), poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products.  Eggs are often mentioned as a good B12 source, but they also contain a factor that blocks absorption.  Certain insects such as termites contain B12 produced by their gut bacteria, in a way analogous to ruminant animals.  While lacto-ovo vegetarians usually get enough B12 through consuming dairy products, vegans will lack B12 unless they consume B12-containing dietary supplements or B12-fortified foods.  According to the UK Vegan Society, the present consensus is that any B12 present in plant foods is likely to be unavailable to humans because B12 analogues can compete with B12 and inhibit metabolism.


Sources of B12 that are suitable for a vegan diet include seaweed called laver, barley grass, and human intestinal bacteria.


Vitamin B12 deficiencies occur when the body is unable to properly use the vitamin.  Pernicious anemia can make the body unable to absorb vitamin B12 from the intestinal tract.  Because vitamin B12 comes primarily from animal products, those following a strict vegetarian or vegan diet, and do not consume eggs or dairy products, may require vitamin B12 supplements.  Non-animal sources of vitamin B12 exist but are highly variable in their B12 content.  They are considered unreliable sources of the vitamin.  Those who have undergone surgery on specific parts of the small intestine or stomach are also prone to a deficiency if they do not take B12 supplements.

Low levels of B12 can cause anemia, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, weakness, and loss of balance.

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St. John’sWort is used in all pulmonary complaints, bladder troubles, in suppression of urine, dysentery, worms, diarrhea, hysteria and nervous expression, haemoptysis and other hemorrhages and jaundice.   For children troubled with incontinence of urine at night an infusion or tea given before retiring will be found effectual:  it is also useful in pulmonary consumption, chronic catarrh of the lungs, bowels or urinary passages.  It is externally used for fomentations to dispel hard tumors, caked breasts and ecchymosis.




Dr. Kumar Pati, USA


Phenylanine is an amino acid;  a  “building block” for protein.  There are three forms of phenylalanine:  D-phenylalanine, L-phenylalanine, and a combination made in the laboratory call DL-phenylalanine.  D-phenylalanine is not an essential amino acid-its role in people is not currently understood.  Whereas L-phenylalanine is an essential amino acid and it the only form of phenylalanine found in proteins.  Major dietary sources of L-phenylalanine include meat, fish, eggs, cheese, and milk.


L-phenylalanine is found in most foods that contain protein such as beef, poultry, pork, fish, milk, yogurt, eggs, cheese, soy products (including soy protein isolate, soybean flour, and tofu), and certain nuts and seeds.  The artificial sweetener aspartame is also high in phenylalanine.  D-phenylalanine is made in the laboratory but is not found in food.


Phenylalanine is used for depression, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (AD-HD), Parkinson’s disease, chronic pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and a skin disease called vitilligo.  Some people apply it directly to the skin for vitilligo.


One animal study suggests that D-phenylalanine may improve rigidity, walking disabilities, speech difficulties, and depression associated with Parkinson’s disease.  However, there is no evidence yet whether it would have the same effect in humans.   More research is needed.  Some clinical studies suggests that phenylalanine may be helpful as part of a comprehensive therapy for depression.  However, most of the studies were done in the 1970s and 1980s and were not rigorously tested.  People reported that their mood improved when they took phenylalanine.  Researchers think this is because phenylalanine increases production of brain chemicals, such as dopamine and norepinephrine.  More research is required to tell whether phenylalanine has any real effect on depression.


Recommended dosages of phenylalanine vary depending on the health condition being treated.  Take supplements 15-30 minutes before meals.  The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for L-phenylalanine are as follows.  Note this is for getting phenylalanine from food, not supplements.


Infants              0-4  months                125 mg per kg of body weight

Children          5-25 months                69 mg per kg of body weight

Children          3-12 years                    22 mg per kg of body weight

Teenagers and Adults                         14 mg per kg of body weight


The combination of oral and topical phenylalanine (together with ultraviolet light) is used to treat children with vitilligo.  The dose is determined by a doctor.  Some experts suggest that adults may need as much as 39 mg per kilogram of body weight per day for general health.







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St. John’sWort is used in all pulmonary complaints, bladder troubles, in suppression of urine, dysentery, worms, diarrhea, hysteria and nervous expression, haemoptysis and other hemorrhages and jaundice.   For children troubled with incontinence of urine at night an infusion or tea given before retiring will be found effectual:  it is also useful in pulmonary consumption, chronic catarrh of the lungs, bowels or urinary passages.  It is externally used for fomentations to dispel hard tumors, caked breasts and ecchymosis.